Официальная обратная связь диалога для Саммита ООН по продовольственным системам 2021 года
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The promotion of Agroecology follows the formal recommendations made by the Committee of World Food Security (CFS) and its High Level Panel of Expert (HLPE) report to foster Agroecology as an actionable and sustainable approach for contributing to a Food System transformation that enhances food security and nutrition. Through this solution, we aim to address the inherent complexity of food systems, whose transformation requires a comprehensive and systemic approach.
The concept of Agroecology does not present a narrow defined silver bullet solution but should be understood as a framework, building on core ecological principles that can be translated into a range of practices and systemic changes to be applied in a context-specific manner. FAO identifies 10 Elements of Agroecology that guide policy makers, practitioners and stakeholders in operationalizing agroecological transitions.
Agroecology is a scientific discipline and a recognized social movement that nowadays is underpinned by a considerable evidence base for various production contexts. The HLPE report on Agroecological and other innovative approaches, and the FAO Agroecology Hub are considered common denominators for the definition and framework of Agroecology. The proposed approach mimics natural ecological systems’ principles for resilient and healthy food production while addressing systemic challenges such as, depletion of soils and natural resources, biodiversity loss, pollution and climate change. Finally, agroecology as a solution aims at boosting family farmers, food producers and consumer agencies rather than treating them merely as beneficiaries.
Building on the ecological cornerstones of healthy and fertile soils, diversity, redundancy and closing ecological cycles to increase nutrient and resource use efficiency as well as fostering natural regulation processes, Agroecology is mimicking natural ecosystems.
Alternately, civil society groups define agroecology as a holistic approach to sustainable agriculture and food systems. Beyond its biophysical and ecological aspects, we look at agroecology as being strongly grounded on the environmental; social and cultural; economic; and political dimensions of sustainability, as defined and outlined by the Pesticide Action Network (PAN) International and Coopération Internationale pour le Développement et la Solidarité (CIDSE)
On the other hand, «organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity. It emphasises the use of management practices in preference to the use of off-farm inputs, taking into account that regional conditions require locally adapted systems. This is accomplished by using, where possible, agronomic, biological, and mechanical methods, as opposed to using synthetic materials, to fulfil any specific function within the system.» (FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission, 1999).
Organic production systems are inclusive of all the Agroecology principles with an additional element of ban on chemical fertilisers and pesticides. Because it’s believed in organic farming and backed by numerous scientific studies that all living creatures in the ecological food web of life — the microbes, insects including butterflies, amphibians, birds and the entire biodiversity gets adversely affected by the use of chemical fertilisers and the pesticides which then affects the pollination, soil carbon and closing of these ecological cycles ultimately leading to unsustainable, toxic food systems that affect our health and environments.
Farmers do understand this but because they are unaware or have no access to these alternative resources for pest control, they succumb to what is available and easily accessible to control the pests. With the increased use of chemical pesticides, the farmers are now becoming aware of the resistance to chemicals by the existing pests and how this is a never ending vicious trap. Hence, many farmers are resorting to more sustainable alternatives of employing low cost, locally sourced, farm made organic pest repellents, advocated under the Organic Production Systems.
Agroecology and Organic Farming is practiced widely all over the world, often by small-scale operations. Even though IFAD and FAO and the other UN agencies recognise the importance of farmers, indigenous people, youth and women in Agroecology and the Organic Production Systems, when it comes to the ground realities of a farmer in his/ her locality, it’s still a huge struggle to convince the neighbouring farmers, consumers, municipalities and ultimately Governments about the importance Agroecology and the innovative approaches to conversion to more regenerative practices.
- Inform and educate the participants about the issues and challenges of the present food system and the role of agroecology and organic production systems in addressing these issues
- Make use of the Independent Dialogue to put the voices of the small farmers and the marginalized in setting the agenda and proposing pro-farmer, pro-people and pro-planet solutions to the Food Systems Summit